The Features of Communication between a Teacher and Students under Professional Foreign-Language Teaching Conditions in an Agrarian University

Язык труда и переводы:
УДК:
81'243
Дата публикации:
07 декабря 2020, 20:44
Категория:
Преподавание профессионально ориентированного иностранного языка
Авторы
Ulanova Olga Borisovna
Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
Аннотация:
This article is dedicated to the features of organizing distance teaching the discipline «Foreign language for professional general purposes». The paper evaluates the efficiency of ways and practices by which the academic work has been arranged in written form. The paper analyzes both pedagogical and psychological factors influencing the students under distance work organization condisions. The article reveals how the distance work particular ways and practices influence the students` independence development, when mastering a foreign language, and its acquisition efficiency as well.
Ключевые слова:
communication, independence, professional foreign language, written speech
Основной текст труда

Introduction

The topic of our work can be assessed as relevant  in the modern unfavorable epidemiological situation. Distance learning is the only way to continue the educational process in modern conditions. Although distance learning is considered as the interaction  between a teacher and a student only  at the  distance, it reflects all the components inherent in the educational process, including goals, content, methods, organizational forms, and learning tools [1]. The distance learning  principles  are developed in the  papers written by  scientists and teachers Yu. K. Babansky, V. A. Slastenin, M. N. Skadina.

The communication concept is known as known as  exchanging thoughts and information in the form of speech and written signals [2]. This problem has been studied in many scientists' papers, including philosophers Y. Habermas, K. Jaspers.

This article purpose is to identify and analyze the agricultural University students` distant learning features in the discipline «Foreign language for professional purposes».

There are two problems that are to be solved in this research. Firstly, it is difficult to organize the student's full-fledged educational activity on the distance basis, that is, when  the direct relationship between a teacher and a student is impossible. Secondly, remote work requires more written  activity  done by both a teacher and a student. At the same time, the first  communication participant mentioned  is sometimes forced to explain tasks repeatedly, communicating in a chat with students.

Materials and methods

Our paper was based on the outcomes received in working with the groups of  1-st and 3-d year-students, learning at the Russian State Agrarian University. All the tasks developed are posted in each student`s personal account. One of the distant learning advantages is that a student has to do tasks completely in the independent way, for example without any groupmates' help, visual and activity support from a teacher [3].

However, for a student to master the ways of independent work, a teacher must think through each task scenario in a through way. The first type of  the teacher`s influence on the student can be described as pedagogical. The technique we   applied  was conditionally termed as «system deployed action». There was  large demand for both quantity and quality of teacher's writing, that  was sure to result in the students' writing volume.  Having been analyzed from the quantitative side,  the teacher`s written speech utterance volume also  grows. If the distant learning is provided, a number of full-fledged  full-structure proposals based on the textbook models and sent to students is increasing. In particular, the share of so-called notes in the  printouts made   for students is increasing. Their goal is to get students to understand the material better. Notes can be applied to tables. As an example, we will touch on the problem of teaching students of the DF group No. 203, studying according the educational program «Finance and credit». They were taught to define the key concepts of the text «Demand and supply» [4, p. 22]. In any case, the teacher offers them a table containing the rules for defining key concepts (table 1).

Table 1. Defining the professionally-oriented text key concepts

Key noun  (number)

Сказуемое

Substitute-word

Definition way

Sg .

pl.  or uncountable

Construction

Voice

The

Construction

Indicators

A (n)

-

(to be) known as….

Passive

 Participle 1

Ing

 

(to be) referred to as…, (to be) termed as…

 Participle 2

3d  verbal form

(ed)

— Ем, им.

Mean (s)

Active

Attributive clause

That+

(verb+s)-

 

That+

(to be)+ 3d  verbal form

 

 

 

Here is the example of a note to this table: the word substitute is more general than an example (table 1). In particular, the supply and demand are the examples given from the more general concept termed as an economic category.

The teacher's explanations are also formulated for the schematic material. The speech must be complete-structural (while there may be understatements in colloquial speech). When the Gardening and Landscape architecture faculty students of the DG group No. 102 are mastering the topic «Noun in the  attributive function», the special schemes in which the arrow direction demonstrates the  word combination English- Russian translation order are proposed: beginning end .

Here is the examples  of the word-combination translated according to this scheme:land (2) cultivation (1).

However, it is not enough only to look at the scheme. The teacher writes detailed explanations such as: «it is known that the translation of the phrase consisting of several nouns should be completed from the beginning to the end (that is, from right to left). The opposite principle is sometimes true. The  English-Russian translation principle depends on the Russian language logic». As this example shows, the teacher  uses the technique of clarifying his own explanations, added to, full-structural explanatory patterns. In this case, explanations are indicated in parentheses, further clarifying the material  explanation.

We supposed artistic speech  means, including comparison or metaphor, to enable to understand the material better. This prompted us to combine artistic speech with visual images in the form of pictures. For example, the  students of the DP group No. 106, studying  according to the «Advertising and public relations» educational program, are mastering  the construction including  «It as a formal subject»: Itis useless  for listeners  to make notes of the lecture verbatim.

As the analysis example shows, the words selected are not translated into Russian. For the more efficient material comprehension, the teacher compares the words in the sentence, following one another, with beads (Picture 1).

                         

It                                                 (to be)                               Прилагательное                      for                                 to+  глагол 

                                                                                   Picture 1. Visual image

 

At the same time, students are explained that the same-color beads  should symbolize the structure  permanent components. Being of different red color,  one bead symbolizes the word that is not always used in the whole sentence design. Since the teacher does not have the opportunity to  explain the educational material to students in the personal way, he also increases the task   diversity  level aimed at mastering the same material. That`s why, mastering this topic, you can also use the table,  like the one presented below, in addition to artistic techniques (table 2).

                                                                                   Table 2. It as a formal subject

Language

 

English

It

Составное именное сказуемое

Предлог (-) (Вопрос: Кому?)

To+ глагол-(3)

Продолжение

(to be)

Прилагательное-(2)

Is

Important, essential, necessary

(for me) (1)

To understand

this lecturer (4)

Useful

Difficult, hard

Easy

Interesting

 

 

Boring

 

 

 

Possible

 

The teacher suggests that having analyzed table 2, the students find the words marked with (-), which means that there is no translation into Russian. Then, having reviewed the «bead image» (see the example above) and the numbers in table 2, following in the certain order, students answer the question: «In what order do the construction components follow one another, taking into consideration that the words it and for are not translated into Russian?»  Having looked at the visual image, the students  enumerate the sequence of the words for the rule to be received. As a result, the rule looks in the following way: «if the construction is followed by the words it, the verb form (to be), the adjective, the preposition for+  object and the particle to+ verb,  the words it and for are not to be translated into Russian».  We assume that  it is possible to implement an individual approach to students   characterized by different dominant thinking  types  (for example, logical or imaginative). Having reviewed the printout, each student chooses the teacher's explanation version  which he can be guided by for the new material more efficient comprehension.

          A number of tasks to be performed is increasing under the distant learning conditions. In order to teach students to perform written monologues,  the teacher uses the technique of asking students questions in written form for their thinking process to be stimulated. As a result, students are to make their own monologue utterances. 

  For example, students of the group DF  No. 203 were given the task to master the lesson vocabulary more efficiently, and as a result, they discussed  the problem Are the ideas of a consumer and a buyer the same or different? The students received the handout containing a number of questions like 1) What do buyers do? Do they buy goods? What does a buyer do? Does he or she buy goods? 2) What do consumers do? Do they consume goods? What does a consumer do? Does he or she consume goods? 3) Do buyers always consume goods? Do parents buy toys for children? Do they play with these toys themselves? Does a buyer always consume goods? Does a pet-owner consume pet's food himself or herself?  4) Are buyers always consumers? Are the buyers of birthday presents their consumers? Is a buyer always a consumer? Can a little child be the buyer of his or her toys? Can he be the consumer of these toys who plays with them? 

Having analyzed the questions, we come to the conclusion that some of them are duplicated. As a result, three important tasks are solved: 1) the student, writing affirmative sentences, using the question patterns, repeats Present Simple grammar construction, agreeing the subject and predicate with each other; 3) a student comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to alternate constructions (in particular, with different numbers of the noun — subject); 3) developing the students'  ability to select illustrative examples for their own monologue.

In addition to the general work carried out with all students, the teacher provides the  individual approach, formulating the tasks for some particular students. This type of influence on the student is psychological in nature. Having begun to work  in the remote way, some students were dissatisfied with the work amount, seeming to have increased. However, the  situation analysis  and corrective measures  performed it possible to change the situation for the better and achieve more effective outcomes. In particular, the teacher used the following techniques: 1) explained to students the situation in which he is forced to give more explanations in writing, rather than tasks; 2) began to highlight the tasks themselves by different colors  in the printouts sent to students; 3) sent students an email message in which the proposed tasks were linked to the generally accepted requirements for tests and exams.

For the diagnostics convenience, we have identified the students` activity assessment levels, when studying a professional foreign language. An excellent level implies that students regularly complete all the teacher's tasks. At the same time, the student  learns all the teacher's instructions  in detail. If there is any misunderstanding,  he contacts  the teacher and asks questions in writing. Tasks are performed not only correctly, but also with all the teacher’s requirements having taken into account. There are no grammatical or lexical  mistakes when completing tasks.

A good level involves completing all the main tasks. At the same time, the student tries to  understand all the teacher's  instructions. If  he cannot understand the instructions, he asks the teacher for help and explanations  almost always.  Tasks are performed correctly, but  the student does not always take all teacher's requirements into account. A number of grammatical and lexical mistakes allowed is not over 1-2.

The satisfactory task completion level implies that some tasks are done successfully enough. A number of grammatical and lexical mistakes allowed is not over 3-4. However, the student does not always respond to the teacher's request to work at correcting  mistakes.

The unsatisfactory level implies that the student rarely makes contact with the teacher.  Only a small number of tasks is done. A number of grammatical and lexical mistakes exceeds 5-6.

Research outcomes

Our research was carried out from March to June in 2020. Table 3 demonstrates our research outcomes received in different students` groups:

Table 3. research outcomes

Group 

Total number of students

 Diagnostics time

The student's activity assessment level

Excellent

Good

Satisfactory

Unsatisfactory

DF No. 203

10

March 2020

 A number of students:

3

2

4

1

The percentage:

30

20

40

10

June 2020

 A number of students:

4

5

1

-

The percentage:

40

50

10

-

DG  No. 102

15

March 2020

A number of students:

5

3

6

1

The percentage:

33. 3

20

40

6. 6

 June 2020

A number of students:

10

4

1

-

The percentage:

66. 6

26. 6

6. 6

-

DP   No. 106

11

March 2020

A number of students:

2

5

4

-

The percentage:

18. 1

45. 4

36. 3

-

 June 2020

A number of students:

8

3

-

-

The percentage:

72.7

27.2

-

-

 

Note: As the total number of students in each group chosen is different from all other groups, we have calculated the percentages for different subgroups according to their linguistic activity level evaluation. As a whole we have  revealed that the level, diagnosed in June 2020, have grown compared with March, 2020. Besides, table 4 analyzes some calculation errors for different groups and months.

Table 4. The calculation error analysis from table 3

Group

Month

 Calculation error (%)

DG  No. 102

 

March

0.1

June

0. 2

DP  No.  106

March

0. 2

June

0.1

Table 3 analysis showed that students achieved better results in writing language tasks in June than in March. In particular, the students' percentage characterized by excellent and good task completion level in the discipline «Professional foreign language» has increased in all groups. In addition, if  a small percentage of language activity unsatisfactory assessments  was detected in groups DF No. 203 and DG  No. 102, the task  performance by this students' category was regarded as satisfactory in June.

Conclusions

As the result of this approach used, the proposed task students' level awareness has increased. As the students have to perform a large amount of written work, when mastering the language material, students are encouraged to use motor memory associated with the hand muscle action.  We suggested that this would contribute to the  more effective learning experience for students. Students' written speech improved from both the  quantitative and qualitative sides as the result of conducting classes in the distant from. The former suggests reducing a number of grammatical, lexical and stylistic mistakes. The latter suggests the speech artistry level.

Литература
  1. Volzhenina N.V. Organizacija samostojatel'noj raboty studentov v processe distancionnogo obuchenija: uchebnoe posobie. Barnaul: Izd-vo Alt. Un-ta, 2008. 59 s.
  2. Vaclavik P., Bivin Dzh., Dzhekson D. Pragmatika chelovecheskih kommunikacij: Izuchenie patternov, patologij i paradoksov vzaimodejstviya. M.: Aprel'-press; EKSMO-press, 2000. 311 s.
  3. Abasheva E.A. K voprosu o samostoyatel'noj rabote studentov, uglublenno izuchayushchih inostrannyj yazyk v neyazykovom vuze. Riga: Institut transporta i svyazi, 2004. 346 s.
  4. Glushenkova E.V., Komarova E.N. anglijskij yazyk dlya studentov ekonomicheskih special'nostej: uchebnik. 2-e izd., ispr. M.: OOO «Izdatel'stvo ACT»; OOO «Izdatel'stvo Astrel'», 2004. 350 s.
Ваш браузер устарел и не обеспечивает полноценную и безопасную работу с сайтом.
Установите актуальную версию вашего браузера или одну из современных альтернатив.